Along the fronds of the fern pictured below are hundreds of small, haploid spores. Through the dispersal of these by the wind, water, or other natural forces, these spores are distributed to other areas. Without having to fuse with another cell, these spores can grow into a gametophyte. Eventually, the male and female parts of the gametophyte will grow into the sporophyte, also known as the fern. The sporophyte then produce the sporangia pictured below containing the spores. Besides plants like ferns that aren’t seed bearing, fungi, bacteria, and algae also produce spores.


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